Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Memo on Immigration paper - Assignment Example 2. The inflated costs of travel is not just a national issue, it is a global issue. The costs of increased security at our borders is only one of the costs. The war overseas, oil prices and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economic market all affect costs. Most countries are in the throes of a deep recession. Planning ahead is one way of controlling costs. 3. The term Homeland Security is a broad term for what our national security is comprised of nationally. We already have several agencies at the State, Federal and local levels assisting us with our immigration issues. The Office of the Secretary is over Homeland Security. 4. Anyone that wishes to enter the United States will continue to be thoroughly screened, have background checks and their activity flagged. As far as costs, as the level of criminals and terrorists entering our borders decrease, so too will out costs. As with anything else over a long period we will see an
Monday, July 22, 2019
Slaughter and the Speckled Band Essay The Two works that I am comparing for this essay are Lamb to the slaughter by Roald Dahl and the Speckled Band by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The Speckled band is a stereotypical Sherlock Holmes murder mystery written in 1892 and Lamb to the Slaughter was written some 60 years later by Rhoald Dahl in 1954. We can therefore safely expect their to be many differences in plot and language and some themes, but both share the common themes of murder. Both texts are murder mysteries but there is a single important difference. In TSB we are encouraged to find the solution to the murder by assembling our evidence from the text and drawing conclusions as we see fit. There is, though, a red herring clue included to throw the reader, the most obvious example being the presence and the close association of the Gypsies with Dr Roylott. In LTTS we know who has committed the murder and the details, but the fun is in seeing if she will get caught. Both pieces of text have unusual murder weapons but this is a norm with murder mysteries which continues to this day; the Jonathon Creek series being a popular notable example. The characters in both texts are well worth a mention. In TSB the characters are predictable. The strong, brutal male, Dr Roylott is the murderer and the emphasis is less on who and more on how. I dont think that Sir Arthur Doyle would be allowed to get away with this in either the present day climate or the climate of 1954. Just as Dr Roylott is an obvious murder suspect Helen Stoner is the obvious damsel in distress. The dragged out description of her and her features describe a woman with a figure of thirty but starting to sprout premature grey hair. In TSB the characters are subject to a much longer introduction and time of description. Rhoald Dahl does not do this and hardly describes Mary Maloneys physical appearance at all leaving each individual reader to draw his or her image. The reader though cannot disagree on the mindset of Mary Maloney; she is obsessed with her husband and routines. Even though TSB is written in the first person I think we can still tell more about Mary Maloneys character. Sir Arthur Doyle has not delved too deeply into Dr Watsons thoughts and this is deliberate. The only think that Sir Arthur Doyle concentrates on in Dr Watsons subconscious mind is his admiration of Sherlock Holmes, after all they are the Sherlock Holmes series of books and Dr Watson is only a clever literary narrative tool. In LTTS the characters are less predictable. We know that Sir Arthur Doyle did once try to make his characters actions unpredictable to the extreme by killing off Sherlock Holmes but the pressure of public opinion forced him to resurrect his most famous character. The murderer this time is not the brutal male but the supposedly timid housewife. Notice also that the sex of the murderer has changed. It would be fair to say that this would mirror a change in the opinion of the role of women, there gaining of the vote and there rise to equals of the male sex. The feelings and sympathies we have with the murderers is also worthy of attention. We feel sorry for Mary Maloney up to a point in LTTS because she is six months pregnant and we sympathise with her shock and we recognise that her murder was more of a spur of a moment murder rather than a carefully constructed and well executed murder plot as is the case with DR Roylott. The point where I no longer feel sympathetic was when she laughed at the very end of the text. This displayed a deeper evil that had gone unnoticed before in the text. The feelings we feel for the victims are very different. In TSB we feel sorry for the victim in the text, Helen Stoners sister, who is in the prime of her life and is about to get married. This increases our hatred of Dr Roylott. The victim in LTTS is a man who is leaving his wife who is six months pregnant. His conduct up to the point of his death is rude and arrogant. He uses monosyllabic answers to firmly control his wife. Also when he leaves his wife he is more worried about the effect it may have on his job. We are not too sorry to see him go. The two pieces do have a number of similarities. They both have unusual murder weapons and they both remind us that even respectable, or in the case of Dr Roylott once respectable members of the community can kill, whether that is because of financial or personal reasons. They share common themes such as murder, murder mystery and deceit.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Zara: Expanding Overseas | SWOT, Porters Five and PEST Zara is one of the most well known brands in the world and is also one of the largest international fashion companies. They are the third largest brand in the garment industry and are a unit of Inditex. It their flagship range of chain stores and are headquartered in Spain. Zara opened its first outlet in Spain in 1975. The headquarters of the company is based in Galicia. There are more than 2600 stores across 73 countries in the world. The Zara clothing line accounts for a huge bulk of its parent groups revenues. There are other clothing brands owned by Inditex such as KiddyÃâÃ ´s Class (childrens fashion), Pull and Bear (youth casual clothes), Massimo Dutti (quality and conventional fashion), Bershka (avant-garde clothing), Stradivarius (trendy garments for young woman), Oysho (undergarment chain) and Zara Home (household textiles). Inditex owns all Zara outlets except for places where they are not allowed ownership of stores (thats where Franchises step in). Zara is renowned for coming up with products on a short timescale instead of taking forever. They are known for taking around 2 weeks to develop products and have been known to come up with around 10,000 new designs every year (which is an industry record). They have bucked the trend by making productions in Europe instead of shifting their entire production to Third World or Developing countries. However some of their clothes are manufactured in parts of Asia due to the fact that they have a longer shelf life. They make most of their own products inside Spain or other European Countries as they own a large number of factories in both Spain and Portugal. They also dont have to depend on anyone else as they can get everything done by themselves. Zara is unique in the way that it does not spend money on marketing and instead concentrates on opening new stores instead. Their brave experiments have led them to be labeled as one of the most innovative retailers in the world. Zara started out with low priced products which were pale imitations of high end fashion products. This move led to Zara being a smashing success and allowed them to expand by opening more stores in Spain. The company management also managed to reduce the time it took to create new designs and came up with the term instant fashions which allowed them to capitalize on new trends really fast. Zara is known to use teams of designers instead of individuals. Zara has to face a lot of competition from HM, Gap and Bentton internationally. Fortunately Zara is considered to be more fashionable than the rest of the brands despite the fact that its price is less than Benetton and Gap. HM is still cheaper than Zara but is equally fashionable as Zara. Gap and Benetton are less fashionable and more pricy. SWOT Analysis (S)trengths Zaras biggest strength is the fact that it provides cost leadership strategy by aiming at efficiency and cost reduction on products. There is a lot of efficiency merely due to the fact that products are put on fast track and costs are kept really low. They dont take a long time to come up with new collections. Zara is able to come up with collections really fast (around 2 weeks to get a collection ready). Zara focuses on what its customers want and thats why they have managed to do so well. They are able to get the opinions of its customers on a daily basis. The data is sent over to the headquarters where it is analyzed. This is a great way of saving time and helps them understand what sort of trends to follow. Since it does not take them a long time to come up with products they are able to cash in on the trends. They are also able to design, manufacture and send out the new products in less than 2 weeks. They are also very efficient when it comes to delivery of the products. Zara employs a huge team of designers who are able to design the clothes they require. Most of these designers are fresh out of Fashion schools and are able to do more for less. Most of the clothes manufactured are made in Spain and there is no need for outsourcing. Zara manufactures and distributes its clothes so it manages to cut out the middle man. This is one reason why they are able to get clothes out there so fast. They also have a great Information technology solution in place which allows for decentralized decision making. (W)eaknesses Zara does not spend any money on marketing or advertising. This is a huge weakness for them as its competitors spend a lot of money on advertising. Zara relies on goodwill and word of mouth so that people can shop at their stores. This is a weakness which can be exploited in the future by its competitors. Another weakness is the fact that Zara only has one manufacturing and distribution centre in the world. This is a double edged sword as it is both a weakness and strength. The fact that they have a huge distribution centre makes it an asset but then if it is hit by some sort of natural disaster or some logistical problem then it can have an adverse effect on its revenues. (O)pportunities There are a lot of opportunities for Zara lying ahead. They need to expand their presence in the USA where they face competition from the likes of GAP. They only have around 49 stores in the US which is not bad but then based on the size of the US that is equivalent to around one store per state. In comparison there are more than 300 stores in Spain which is a fraction of the size of the US. They may have conquered Europe but they still need to expand into the US market so they can give Gap a run for its money. They can grow properly if they expand their presence in the US. Zara is only going for markets where it is doing well such as Italy. However there is a huge opportunity for them to tap into the Indian market. The Indian Economy is doing really well and people over there love to buy good quality brand names at a reasonable price. Zara already has 2 outlets in India but then it wouldnt hurt to expand a bit more and form alliances with local manufacturers. This will make it easier for them to slowly grow within the Indian market. (T)hreats The biggest threat facing Zara is the fact that it is Europe Based. Zara is based in Spain and has a huge number of stores in Europe. Critics believe that there is an over saturation of stores in Europe and that having such a huge number of stores will dent the revenues over the longer term. The other reason is the fact that the Euro tends to be stronger than the Dollar. This is one reason why merchandise from Zara tends to be more expensive in other countries. This can be a big turn off and can have an adverse effect on their revenues in the longer term. Porters Five Forces Porters Five Forces allows us to look at the five forces which help us determine the competitive intensity and the attractiveness of a market. Some of these forces are related to competition from external sources while the rest are internal threats. These are basically all related to the macro environment. The various Forces are threat of substitute products, the threat of established rivals, the threat of new entrants, the bargaining power of suppliers and the bargaining power of customers. Porters Five Forces Analysis Threat of Competitors Zara faces a lot of competition in the market. There are a large number of competitors in the market such as HM, Benetton, Gap, etc. Fortunately The high level of competition makes it tough for everyone as they are all struggling to get a piece of the pie . The biggest problem is that due to the large number of competitors the growth rate is low due to the number of manufacturers around. The clothing industry has peaked and it is very difficult for people to stay in the industry as the competition is cut throat. Customers are spoiled for choice due to the number of brands within the market. They are also very fickle minded and base their buying habits on the basis of new trends. They will only buy based on price and brand recognition and this is why the manufacturers have to keep changing what they do and come up with new ways of gaining customers. The costs of manufacturing new goods are quite high plus it is not easy to procure raw material so thats why the ones who have the resour ces and the ability to do so are able to survive within the market. Threat of New Entrants There is always the threat of new entrants but then the risk is not so much as Zara already has a huge presence in most parts of the world. The barriers for entry for distribution are quite low in Spain ( where the bulk of their clothes come from.) New entrants will have it easy as the cost of distribution is quite low as they only need to rent a shop and need a bit of capital to start out. However when it comes to manufacturing then the barriers of entry are really high mainly due to the fact that it requires a huge investment to get started within the market. Substitutes There is no threat of substitutes as it is a basic necessity for everyone. Customers Bargaining Power Customers have varying levels of bargaining power as they can decide what they want. Customers are quite fickle when it comes to buying clothes. However the good thing is that each customer has a love purchase volume and that means that even if some tend to change their brand there will still be some who will buy Zara. It is not an item like a burger or a snack which is available easily anywhere for a low price. The good thing about the clothing business is that there is no risk nonpayment because customers pay for clothes during purchase. Supplier Negotiation Power There are too many suppliers in the market which is one reason why the suppliers dont have much negotiating power. The fact that Zara procures or makes most of the stuff itself is also another factor which doesnt work in the suppliers favor. If the supplier decides to cut down the supplies the manufacturer can easily go to another manufacturer. PEST Analysis The PEST analysis is a study of the environment before a company begins its marketing process. It is a study of the external macro environment. It stands for Political, Economic, Social, and Technological analysis and is an environmental scanning component of strategic management (P)olitical The political factors affecting Zara are when the government intervenes into the economy and comes up with laws which change the way things are done in the country. The government can easily change its policy and change the ways a business can operate in the country. They can change the laws and do drastic things like changing the interest rate. Zara needs to know the entire system and to be prepared for any potential problems it can face from the government due to a change in policies. (E)conomical Economic factors come into play as they are related to factors such as interest rates, taxation changes, economic growth, inflation and exchange rates. These have the potential to create many problems in the future. There are different duties and levels of tariffs in different countries and this can cause the prices of products to vary in different countries. The price of goods will also vary based on the country of origin and thats what Zara needs to keep in mind. (S)ocial If there are Changes in social trends it will have a huge impact on the demand for Zaras products and the availability and willingness of individuals to work. However that is not likely to happen as its not as if Zara makes niche products. They focus on a huge market and make different types of products so it is quite unlikely that there will be a social shift in this part. However the company still needs to work on trends and to make sure its updated with the times so that it can satisfy its customers and meet the demands of its demographics. (T)echnology Due to advances in technology companies have to make sure that they keep up. Zara has to make sure that they have the latest technology and that they are innovative in every way. The more advanced the technology the more it can bring about some quality. Zara has invested in technology and it has to keep improvising because if they dont then their competitors will get a head start on them. Part 2: Zara is the biggest contributor towards Inditexs profits. Its the most well known brand in the group and has played a huge role in the growth of the group as well as bringing about huge sales and profits. Zaras success has brought about a large number of case studies and reports. It has consolidated its position in the fashion industry and has made a good name for itself. Zaras business model is basically based on the principle that it can sell medium quality fashion clothing at affordable prices. Basically vertical integration and the ability to come up with a quick-response is a key factor to Zaras successful business model otherwise they would be no where without it. The process for Zara has been designed in such a way that it has the various functions within the business system such as designing, sourcing and manufacturing, distribution and retailing. They do all of these themselves and that is one reason why their growth is at a good rate. However what goes up must come down and Zara is not immune to the problems in the world. The way they operate can also prove to be their undoing due to the model they are currently utilizing. The fact that they have their own distribution centre and manufacturing unit is a very weak point. This can be discussed further in this document. The management at Zara have come up four fundamental success factors: short cycle time for creation of product, small quantity per product (and not too much of the same stock) , extensive variety of product every season (so that users can choose easily) as well as a huge investment in information and communication technology to allow them to stay on track . Zara knows what its customers want by tracking their preferences on a year round basis. They have their own team of designers who have been recruited fresh out of fashion school. It is not a tough job to tell them what they want based on the input they receive. They make around a limited quantity of clothes based on the 11000 various items designed by its in-house staff. Zara does not make any losses as they only order a limited quantity of each item which they believe is stylish and will be more restricted season wise. For example if they have miniskirts in design they will only be available for a short time due to the short summer period in Europe. Other clothes which can work the year around and for which the trend does not change are outsourced to Asia as the cost wont be so high. The outsourcing operation is very handy mainly because these clothes have a longer shelf life. It does not take a long time for the clothes to be prepared as it merely takes around 4 weeks total for the whole process : from design to the finished product in the stores. The fact that Zara knows what sort of trends are there in the market and are quick enough to change their strategy to match the trends in the fashion industry gives them a huge advantage. They are able to modify their timetable easily to adjust for a change in the trends in the market. Normally it takes around 8 to 12 months for any normal retailer to forecast trends and come up with a style and send it for production. They are unable to match what Zara does and they end up losing big time. Even if a style fails to sell much, Zara can easily sell the clothes on a discount. The fact that they quantity of clothes manufactured was so low that they lose much. Their low volume strategy has helped them have a very low number of discount sales every year as compared to a high rate for the rest of the industry. However this leads to higher costs which is a disadvantage but then they dont have to worry about having higher inventories. This method allows for a low inventory and high profit margins. They dont save any money here with costs but then they get the maximum out of their clothing line. A problem they face is the fact that since Zara controls everything it is not easy for them to expand or relocate as they have to stay put in one place or the whole operation will suffer and the goods will cost more to distribute. Zaras business model is wonderful in the sense that it has a very fashion forward line as they know which trends to cash in on. They seem to have the midas touch of turning everything into gold. Their policy is to have a mostly young and fashion conscious staff so that they will also be able to double as trend setters. If for instance a certain item in a store sells well then the management decides to sell the same item in other locations as well. The key is that most of the items are in short supply and people presume that there is a shortage of items which ends up making consumers want to buy more. A key factor in Zaras success is the fact that it has sourced its products from the right places. They have based their procurement offices in a couple of fashionable cities in the world. This allows them to witness the trends first hand and then to quickly come up with a solution of their own. They dont buy all the raw products on their own as they use one of their parent groups procurement units to do all its purchasing. One clever move on their part is that they buy most of their fabric in grey so that there is greater flexibility. It doesnt take long for the fabric to be prepared. The main distribution artery is in Spain where they have their biggest distribution centre. They also have some smaller distribution centers in countries such as Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. The problem with the distribution centre is that it is purely based in Spain and does not have the capacity for a heavy load. It is a huge distribution centre and occupies around 500,000 square feet in total. They only have the capability of processing around 60,000 folded garments in an hour. They need to find a new distribution centre or increase their operations so that they can save more time. However the biggest advantage for them is the fact that they have vertical integration which allows them to manufacture and distribute their own stuff without having to be at the mercy of any supplier. It is not tough to move any of their products as they have their own railway network which allows them to move goods easily to its distribution centre. Once the goods are ready they are shipped out immed iately though the shipping schedule is only twice a week. European stores get their goods early (around 24-36 hours) while other destinations get them within 2 days. This system has allowed them to achieve a very high level of accuracy in its shipments. The other good thing is that the outlets dont take long to display the new outfits once they reach their destination and this allows them to show new stock to their customers. The clothes are also coded according to their color so that the staff knows where to place them. This makes it easier for the customers to go around color matching the items they want to buy. Problems with Zara Zara is facing a large number of issues which can cause them a number of problems in the future. Despite the fact that Zara has a consistent business system which gives them a competitive advantage it is always in the danger of tanking badly. Zaras biggest advantage is the fact that its economies of scale are really good and that they have been able to ramp up their distribution system. The continued growth is good for them in every way. They have been helped a lot by their expansion in the international market. However their growth in the international market will be curtailed due to the reason that Zara has a very centralized logistics model. It is understandable that Zara has to expand its distribution centers and to increase its capacity. Zara has its main distribution centre in Spain and it wont be easy going trying to expand when their base is only in Spain. This will affect their plans to go international and to target more regions. They cant simply survive with a European presence alone. It is true that they do have a presence in other countries but then it is not as much as it should be. They have a huge presence in Spain but quite limited when it comes to other countries. They can easily target the North American region where they dont have much of a presence compared to the huge size of the region. The problem is that there are a lot of outlets there and a lot of competition coupled with the need for plus sized clothing, high cost of operations and a very mature market. Zara needs to come up with a strategy so they can compete very aggressively over there. They can also target South America but the problem is that it is not a very stable region and any geopolitical problems can lead to profits being low. A good market would be the ever reliable Middle East where Zara already has a small presence. However with talks of revolution in the air and other geo political problems it can be a risky bet. There are a few countries in the region which will lead it to be profitable but then the market is small compared to other regions. They can easily opt for countries such as the South East Asian markets and South Asia which have a lot of potential. Recommendations Zara can easily go around and expand its operations in many ways. The best thing would be to take it easy for the short term and to go for further expansion in Europe. Spain and Italy are neighbors and the fact that Zara has its main distribution centre in Spain will make it easy for Zara. For the time being they dont need to open any more distribution centers as they can work with regions which are quite near in proximity to them. Italy is one of the most fashion savy countries in Europe along with France. Zara already has 70 plus stores in the country but then they can do a lot better. They can enhance their presence in the market and try and take some share from some of its know rivals such as Benetton and HM. the biggest way for Zara to expand is to try and open another Distribution Centre in Eastern Europe and to be able to expand its operations in Eastern Europe. A number of countries are coming into the European Union and are ripe for the picking. They already have a presence in some countries but the number of stores per region is not as much as it should be. Zara should expand further in the Asian markets once they have been able to do their bit in Europe. They have already tested the waters in Asia despite the fact that there is a lot of competition from local vendors there. However the fact that people in the developing countries and with surging economies will be sure to try out Foreign brands and that would be one reason why its a good idea to expand further in Asia. The only problem is that Zara is based in Spain and that all their designs come from that region. The fact that they make items in limited quantities ensuring a low inventory will scuttle their plans to expand easily. If Zara decentralizes its manufacturing policy it can easily set up its own operations and distribution centre in Asia. It wont be easy as they will still have to procure items via local vendors. If they are unable to create a distribution centre in Asia they can still create a larger upscale distribution centre in Spain where they are able to take the load of supplying to a larger number of stores. In this way they will be able to keep up with the demand and supply. This will help in the growth of the company and allow them to face challenges. It wouldnt be a bad idea to expand in the US market in the long term even if it is not so friendly towards European labels. Competitors such as Benetton and HM have faced problems with the US market in the past. However Zara has the resources and the ability to be able to expand within the market. They can expand easily in the US market only if they manage to curb their costs which are quite high at the moment. They also need to invest in a proper high end IT system which can help them go with the trends. They will not have the advantage of the system they have in Spain as its a totally different ball game over there. There will be different political and economic circumstances which will dictate the way they do everything. It wont be easy to change their entire business model just for another region. This would mean that they have to decentralize the way they work so that they can work in the US. They would have to establish a distribution centre in Mexico or another cheaper place so that they can cater to the needs. The cost of labor wont be so much but the fact that it is decentralized and not under the control of the Spanish HQ. On the bright side it will be cheaper to ship products and the tariffs will be low. This will allow them to save a lot on costs and they will be able to keep their prices the same way they are in the origin countries. They will also be able to enjoy greater margins in this way. They will also be able to resolve other matters such as retailing overcapacity, less fashion-forwardness, need for larger sizes, and considerable internal variation. Risks The risks associated with expanding overseas are that it will require a lot of capital. They need to establish new facilities and it is not an easy task. They have to do a number of studies and research the market properly before they go ahead. It wont be an easy feat setting up everything from scratch. They will also have to train people the way they operate in Spain. However they can still keep the design and procurement process centralized as technology will allow their units to do what they want. Its just the units which need to be decentralized. There is the huge possibility that they will face a number of obstacles and losses before they can actually do something. The only problem is that they will face problems with their margin while they are at it. They will have to face increased costs and will have to pass on the buck to consumers so that their bottom line is not affected. Hypothetically they can also opt for joint ventures or franchising if they dont want to go and expand in the US. The only problem is that joint ventures and franchises dont always pan out as required. It can create problems for their brand name and can cause many unforeseen problems in the future. It is never a good idea to give out a franchise or work in a joint venture unless there is synergy between the two partners. Conclusion In the end it is highly recommended that Zara keep its house and affairs in order before they can think of expansion. Due to the environmental factors and the fact that the Euro Zone will not always be so stable should shake it out of its comfort zone. Expansion is the key but they have to play their cards right and plan their move properly before they end up making some costly mistakes.
Movement Of Small Intestine Biology Essay In much of the gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces a ball of food called a bolus while in the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach along the gastrointestinal tract. Peristaltic movement is initiated by circular smooth muscles contracting behind the chewed material to prevent it from moving back into the mouth, followed by a contraction of longitudinal smooth muscles which pushes the digested food forward. Catastalsis is a related intestinal muscle process.(Google) Movement of small intestine The small intestine is responsible for removing nutrients from food and bringing water and electrolytes in the body. It also moves food through a specific part of the digestive tract, into the large intestine Once processed and digested by the stomach, the milky chyme is squeezed through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine. Once past the stomach a typical peristaltic wave will only last for a few seconds, travelling at only a few centimeters per second. Its primary purpose is to mix the chyme in the intestine rather than to move it forward in the intestine. Through this process of mixing and continued digestion and absorption of nutrients, the chyme gradually works its way through the small intestine to the large intestine. During vomiting the propulsion of food up the esophagus and out the mouth comes from contraction of the abdominal muscles; peristalsis does not reverse in the esophagus. Types of contraction.(Guyton pg# 786) There are two main types of contractions that occur in the small intestine as well as other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. These movements are known as mixing contractions or segmentation contractions and propulsive contractions. While these contractions are categorized separately, both perform similar functions. Mixing movements mainly churns food but also propels it. Propulsive movements primarily push food towards the anus but also spreads it out for allowing the digestive enzymes to mix with it. Mixing or Segmentations contraction When a portion of small intestine becomes distended with chyme,stretching of the intestinal wall elicits localized cocentric contractions spaced at intervals along the intestine and lasting a fraction of minute.The contraction cause segmentation of the small intestine.They divide the intestine in to spaced segments that have the appearance of a chain.As one set of contraction relaxes a new set often begins,but the contraction this time occur mainly at new points between the previous contractions.Therefore the segmentation contraction chop the chyme two to three times per minute. The segmentation contractions become exceedingly weak when the excitatory activity of the enteric nervous system is blocked by the drug atropine. (Guyton pg # 786) While mixing contractions also propels food through the small intestine, its main function is to churn the chyme with intestinal enzymes and mechanically break down some particles.(Google) Propulsive Movements or contraction Chyme is propelled through the small intestine by peristaltic waves.These can occur in any part of small intestine ,and they move towards the anus at a velocity of 0.5 to 2.0 cm/sec,faster in the proximal intestine and slower in the terminal intestine.They normally are very weak and die out after traveling only 3 to 5 cm.This means that 3 to 5 hours are required for passage of chyme from the pylorus to the ileolic valve.(Guyton pg #787) These contractions are concentric meaning that they run around the intestine as illustrated in the diagram below. These spaced segments relax and constrict a number of times thereby Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ãâ¦Ã¢â¬Å"choppingÃ ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã the chyme and mixing it back and forth with enzymes, mucus, water and ions in the intestine. These contractions occur about 10 to 12 times per minute in the duodenum (first part) and jejunum (mid) of the small intestine and diminish to about 8 or 9 contractions per minute in the terminal ileum (end portion).(Google) Control of Movement through the Small Intestine A number of hormonal and nervous factors initiate and maintain peristalsis and mixing. Nerve impulses which travel throughout the small intestine are triggered by the gastroenteric reflex (refer to Defecation Reflex) and localized distention of the duodenum. These impulses are propagated via the enteric nervous system, mainly the myenteric plexus, which is the gutÃ ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢s own internal network of nerves. It is further regulated by impulses from the central nervous system via the vagus nerve and sympathetic trunk.. TheÃâÃ digestive hormones, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastrin and motilin increase intestinal motility while secretin decreases the activity. In addition, serotonin and insulin can increase motility while glucagon can decrease motility.(Google) Ileocecal Valve The ileocecal valve controls the entry of chyme into the colon and prevents backflow of fecal matter into the ileum of the small intestine.A principal function of the ileolic valve is to prevent backflow of fecal contents from the colon in to the small intestine. It has valve lips that closes when the pressure in the cecum builds up. In addition, the end portion of the ileum, just proximal to the ileocecal valve, has a muscular sphincter called the ileolic sphincter. This is constantly constricted and restricts the flow of chyme from ileum into the cecum unless appropriately stimulated to relax and thereby open. The ileocecal sphincter ensures that intestinal contents stay within the small intestine long enough for sufficient absorption of nutrients.(Guyton pg # 788) Motility disorders in small intestine Problems in the small intestine occur when food is blocked, unable to move, or contains bacteria that cannot be broken down by small intestine cells. Intestinal Dysmotility is a dysfunction that hampers peristalsis, or the contractions that move food forward. When food cannot move forward, cramps and headaches occur in the patient because the digestive process has been stopped unnaturally. Bacterial Overgrowth is a condition that leads to immediate expulsion in the small intestine. If there is an overload of bacteria, the small intestine cannot handle it, and stomach pains and vomiting occur. Cancer can strike the small intestine, although it usually is detected in other parts of the body first. Worms and parasites can occasionally affect small intestine health, although these can most often be removed by careful surgeons or specialized medicines.(Google) Movement in large intestine Movement of food through the large intestine is caused by smooth muscle contraction called peristalsis the best way to describe this is to imagine how a snake moves its abdominal muscles to move. As opposed to the more continuous peristalsis of the small intestines, faecal contents are propelled into the large intestine by periodic mass movements. These mass movements occur one to three times per day in the large intestines and colon, and help propel the contents from the large intestine through the colon to the rectum.(Google) Principal functions of colon are It absorbs water from indigestible food matter and then passes useless waste material from the body. It absorbs all the calcium. Water is added to undigested food to digest it easily.It absorbs water from indigestible food matter and then passes useless waste material from the body. Actually no digestion takes place in the large intestine this organ is almost entirely for water absorption. In the colon, the major process that takes place is the reabsorption of water.(Guyton pg # 788) Types of movements or contractions The movements still have characteristics similar to those of small intestine can be divided into mixing movements or Haustrations and propulsive movements or Mass movements. Mixing movement In the same manner the segmentation movements occur in the small intestine large circular contractions occur in the large intestine,about 2.5 cm of circular muscle contracts.At the same time longitudinal muscles contracts.These combined contractions cause the unstimulated portion of the large intestine to bulge outward in to bag like sacs called haustrations. Mass movements Much of the propulsions in the cecum and ascending colon results from the slow but persistent haustral contractions requiring as many as 8 to 15 hours to move the chyme from the ileolic valve through the colon while the chyme itself becomes fecal in quality a semisolid slush instead of semifluid.A seriesof mass movements usually persists for 10 to 30 minutes .then they cease but reurn perhaps a half day later.When they have forced mass of feces into the rectum the desire for defecation is felt.(Guyton pg #789) Another very important type of motility that occurs in the large intestine is the high amplitude propagating contraction (HAPC). These contractions only occur 6-8 times per day in healthy people, but they are extremely strong contractions, which begin in the first part of the large intestine and sweep around all the way to the rectum; they stop just above the rectum.(Google) Motility Disorders of the Large Intestine Constipation Constipation is usually described as infrequent bowel movements (less than 3 per week), passage of hard stools, and sometimes difficulty in passing stools. The sensations associated with constipation can include a constant feeling of needing to go, or a sensation of bloating or fullness. In children, constipation often leads to fecal incontinence. Diarrhea The symptoms of diarrhea are frequent, loose or watery stools, and a subjective sense of urgency. Patients with diarrhea also may worry about loss of control over bowel movements. An excessive number of high amplitude propagating contractions can be a cause of diarrhea Hirschsprungs disease Hirschspurngs disease is a rare congenital (a person is born with it) disorder that is caused by absence of nerve cells (ganglion) in the rectum and/or colon. Usually the problem involves only the bottom portion of the colon, but in some it involves the entire colon or even part of the small intestine. The part of the bowel that lacks nerve cells (aganglionic) cannot propel stool toward the anus, and therefore results in obstruction, severe constipation, or inflammation (enterocolitis). Although symptoms usually begin within a few days after birth, some people dont develop them until childhood or even adulthood. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) The term irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is used to describe a group of symptoms that occur together. These symptoms include abdominal discomfort or pain and altered bowel habit, either constipation or diarrhea. Some people have both constipation and diarrhea, just at different times. Bloating or distention of the abdomen is also common. IBS symptoms are believed to be caused partly by abnormal motility.(Google)
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Government of Spain Political System Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Spain is a parliamentary monarchy. Chief of state is the hereditary monarch and the head of government is the President of the Government. The President designates the cabinet which is called the Council of Ministers. Spain is also has a bicameral legislative branch. The General Courts or National Assembly or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (CIA World Factbook). In order for legislation to pass the two chambers must agree. Proposals of laws issued by the Senate are discussed at Congress in a Plenary Session in order to be accepted or tabled veto or be amended. The proposal of the law passes to the study of a Commission. The Commission writes a short text about the proposal which will be discussed and voted in Plenary Session. Once the text is approved by the Congress proposal of law is submitted by its President to the Senate. Senate may then accept, block a veto or make amendments. If Senate rejects the text by an absolute majority then the text goes back to Congress which can at that point either approve the bill or proposal of law by the same majority required at the Senate or Congress can wait for two months and approve the text by a simple majority. In both cases the text is the one approved initially by Congress. If Senate introduces amendments, Congress only has to accept or reject them by a simple majority. If the text is accepted without any modifications then the text is ready to be sanctioned by the King (U.S. Library of Congress). Electoral System A party must obtain a minimum of 3 percent of the vote in order to qualify for parliamentary representation. Each province is to have a minimum of two seats in the Congress of Deputies, plus one additional seat for every 144,500 inhabitants or fraction over 70,000 inhabitants (U.S. Library of Congress). Members of Congress are elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. Each province is allotted four seats in the Senate, regardless of population. Members of the Senate are directly elected by popular vote for 208 seats and 51 are appointed by the regional legislatures to serve four-year terms (CIA World Factbook). Election Results/ Party System Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As of today the number of parties present in the Senate totals six.
Friday, July 19, 2019
The Horrific Holocaust Nearly six million Jews were killed and murdered in what historians have called "The Holocaust." The word 'holocaust' is a conflagration, a great raging fire that consumes in its path all that lives. In the years between 1933 and 1945, the Jews of Europe were marked for total annihilation. Moreover, anti-Semitism was given legal sanction. It was directed by Adolf Hitler and managed by Heinne Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich and Adolf Eichmann. There were many other great crimes and murders, such as the killing of the Armenians by the Turks, but the Holocaust stood out as the "only systematic and organized effort by a modern government to destroy a whole race of people." The Germans under Adolf Hitler believed that the Jews were the cause of all the German troubles and were a threat to the German and Christian values. Dating back to the first century A.D. the Jews and Christians were always at war. The Jews were considered the murderers of Christ and were therefor denounced from society, rejected by the Conservatives and were not allowed to live in rural areas. As a result, the Jews began living in the cities and supported the liberals. This made the Germans see the Jews as the symbol of all they feared. Following the defeat of the Germans in WW1, the Treaty Of Versailles and the UN resolutions against Germany raised many militaristic voices and formed extreme nationalism. Hitler took advantage of the situation and rose to power in 1933 on a promise to destroy the Treaty Of Versailles that stripped Germany off land. Hitler organized the Gestapo as the only executive branch and secret terror organization of the Nazi police system. In 1935, he made the Nuremberg Laws that forbid Germans to marry Jews or commerce with them. Hitler thought that the Jews were a nationless parasite and were directly related to the Treaty Of Versailles. When Hitler began his move to conquer Europe, he promised that no person of Jewish background would survive. Before the start of the second world war, the Jews of Germany were excluded from public life, forbidden to have sexual relations with non-Jews, boycotted, beaten but allowed to emigrate. When the war was officially declared, emigration ended and 'the final solution to the Jewish problem' came. When Germany took over Poland, the Polish and German Jews were forced into overcrowded Ghettos and employed as slave labour. The Jewish property was seized. Disease and starvation filled the Ghettos. Finally, the Jews were taken to concentration camps in Poland and Germany were they were
Thursday, July 18, 2019
The United States government used many different techniques to remove Indians from Western lands so they could use it for their own selfish needs. Some of these methods were clearly harmful, while others were written to seem reasonable and helpful. Nomadic Indians were finding it hard to live due to declining bison herds and deteriorating grasslands. This situation was made worse by thousands of pioneers pouring into the west because of the new discovery of silver and gold in the Rocky Mountains. The government attempted to solve this problem by creating a structure of smaller reservations for Indians. They would use force if necessary. The IndianÃ¢â¬â¢s responses varied from tribe to tribe. The Pueblos, Crows, and Hidastas happily and obligingly adjusted to their new life. Others felt differently, however. The Navajos and the Sioux strongly opposed the new reservations, but failed in the end. Ten years later, eight new western reservations had been established. Many Great Plains tribes retaliated faced the U. S. army in a series of battles for the West. Similarly, soldiers who were a part of the local militia destroyed Cheyenne and Arapaho camps, who responded with many attacks on travelers. The governor of Colorado authorized white citizens to find and kill and hostile Indians. He then ordered a set of troops to massacre a peaceful group of Indians, including women and children, at Sand Creek. These Indians had originally believed they would be protected by federal troops. This massacre and others that were similar revitalized debate over federal Indian policy. In 1867, Congress sent a peace commission to end the disputes. They set aside two large land reserves, hoping the tribes living there would take up farming and convert to Christianity. Although hidden, here it is clear that one of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s main goals was assimilation. The plan seemed to be successful at first. Most Indians believed that they were not meant to live like the Ã¢â¬Å"white man. Ã¢â¬ They were given hunting grounds and animals to hunt by God, and that was the way they wished to live their lives. Indians with these beliefs did not move to the reservations or refused to remain on them once there. Hoping to take a stand against the reservations, war parties of angry Cheyennes, Arapahos and Sioux raided ettlements in Kansas and Colorado, setting fire to homes and killing white men. Army troops responded by sending army troops to attack, even the peaceful ones. That same fall, Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong CusterÃ¢â¬â¢s raiding party struck a Cheyenne village at night, killing over a hundred men, shooting their horses, and taking women and children as prisoners. In 1871, Congress decided that the treaty making process was not workin g, and they began to only send out executive orders and acts. This set off a series of retaliations from the Indians. In 1874, southern Plains Indians started the Red River War. This particular war ended badly for the Indians, who ended up losing their independence. Soon after, in Arizona and New Mexico, the Apaches fought a guerrilla war until surrendering in 1886. All of these battles and conflicts were truly horrible, but none compare to the battles fought in by the western Sioux tribes. To protect their sacred hunting grounds, they raided near by non- Indian settlements, intimidated federal government workers, and harassed anyone else who came onto their land. In 1874, the government took action against these Indians by sending a force led by Colonel George Armstrong Custer into the Black Hills of South Dakota. Negotiations to buy this area had been broken because the Indians were asking for too high of a price, therefore CusterÃ¢â¬â¢s new goal was to drive the Indians out of this area. Indians still outside the reservations would be hunted down and taken in by force. The battle fought in this land in June 1876 was a great unexpected Indian victory, which only angered and motivated the U. S. army more. Indians were chased down and imprisoned, but most refused to cooperate. Many Indians created dramatic escapes, such as a group following a Dull Knife, who shot the guards and broke away for freedom. Small efforts such as these proved that the Indians were going to keep on fighting for as long as possible. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s continual habits of breaking their treaties led to a number of groups and societies devoted to IndianÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s National Indian Rights Association was founded in 1883, along with other groups with similar causes. Helen Hunt Jackson published A Century of Dishonor, which promoted public opinion against the broken treaties. Many white Americans began new reform movements of creating schools for Indians. Their main goal was to stamp out their Indian identities. Despite these goals, the movements often backfired. The Indians would learn the english language and how to farm, but still had the Indian inside of them. In addition to the schools, many people believed the Indians would be better off if their reservations were broken up, gradually incorporating them in society by giving them the rights of citizens. Most of these people genuinely wanted to help the Indians. This division of reservations was enforced by the Dawes Severalty Act.